Management Hall of Fame
Most Respected Management Gurus

Geert Hofstede
Cultural Diversity (1928-Present)

  • "Management in a global environment is increasingly affected by cultural differences." (Geert Hofstede)

Key Work

  • Graduates from Delft Institute of Technology.
  • Receives Ph.D. from University of Groningen.
  • Undertakes massive research project into IBM.
  • Publish "Culture's Consequences" &  "Cultures and Organizations books"

In his work, Hofstede defines (group, organization, nation) culture as being collective, but often intangible. 

n his view, it is made up of two main elements:  

  • Internal values, which are invisible (right and wrong, individualism and collectivistic etc.)
  • External elements, which are more visible and are known as practices from greeting rituals to hero figures

He identify 4 dimensions for defining work-related values associated with national culture:

  1. power distance : How much a Society accept and how they Handles Inequalities and thus centralization or distribution of power, resources, salary, privileges, and status symbols.
  2. individualism/collectivism : The degree of loyalty and the level of group welfare integration where everyone is expected to look after him/herself versus the welfare of the group they are within.
  3. masculinity/femininity: Gender role and control
  4. uncertainty avoidance

He also devised the "values survey module" for use in researching cultural differences, and as a frame work to understand the differences in Multinational teams, which become a valuable tool to avoid conflict in international management.

Books & References:

  • Culture's Consequences, International Differences in Work-Related Values (Cross Cultural Research and Methodology). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1980.
  • Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991.

Executive Education and Management Training

  • The institute researches, develops, and disseminates management-best-practices and learned-lessons from leading CEOs and Management Gurus. For advanced management training courses, please visit the Management Training Courses.


Corporate Training. Strategic Retreats. Careers. Contact.
Client Testimonials.  Training Excellence.  CEO Club. 
Action Learning.  Thought Leadership.  FAQ. 
Executive Education: CEO Management Training Seminars, Courses, Classes, Workshops in USA: Las Vegas, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Chicago, New York, DC, Miami
Professional Management Training and Development

Courses. Workshops. Programs.


Corporate Training. Strategic Retreats. MasterClasses. Think Tank.


Management Training Calendar

USA and Canada Training Calendar 2024.    Europe Training Calendar 2024


Management Courses. Management Training. Government Training.    

CEO Club.
USA Training Courses. International Training Courses.   


About Us.   Contact Us.