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Leadership Success 101 (Draft
Personal & Leadership Development
Med Jones, International
Institute of Management
Leadership Success Frequently Asked
Q. What is the human hierarchy of needs?
A. In the 1940s and 1950s Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model,
which remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management
training, and personal development. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states that we
have five levels of needs. We must satisfy each need in turn, beginning with the
first and moving up to level five. Only when the lower order needs of physical
and emotional well-being are satisfied are we concerned with the higher order
needs of influence and personal development. Conversely, the lower order needs
are removed, we are no longer concerned about the maintenance of our higher
1. Survival (Biological and
Physiological) needs: Air, drink, food, sex, sleep, shelter ...
2. Safety needs: Security, law,
3. Belongingness needs: Family,
love, relationships, tribes....
4. Self-esteem needs: Achievements,
independence, power, social status...
5. Self-actualization needs:
Self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth, rich experiences, helping others
At what needs
level are you currently operating?
Q. What is SWOT?
A. SWOT stands for Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats. SWOT analysis
was a result of the research conducted at Stanford Research Institute from
1960-1970 and funded by Fortune 500 companies to find out why corporate planning
failed. SWOT Analysis is a strategy formulation tool, taught in MBA programs and
used by successful executives to analyze the position of their business before
planning. Although this tool was developed for the business world, I find it to
be an invaluable life planning tool. The first step in planning your personal
development (business, career and relationships) is to identify:
Strengths (maintain, build and leverage)
Opportunities (prioritize and optimize)
Weaknesses (remedy or exit environment)
Threats (mitigate risks)
In the workshop, I will translate this tool from
the business world to your personal world to bring a substantial positive
development to your life and help you succeed.
Q. What is Neuro-Linguistic Programming or
A. In the 1970s Richard Bandler, a computer scientist and Gestalt therapist, and
Dr John Grinder, a linguist and therapist created NLP as a modeling process.
Neuro-Linguistic Programming describes the fundamental dynamics between mind
(neuro) and language (linguistic) and how their interplay affects our body,
emotions and behavior (programming). It is a self-discovery, communication and
change tool. NLP consists of a set of techniques for rapid and effective
behavioral change. It is based on four operational principles:
1. Know what outcome you want to achieve
2. Have sufficient sensory acuity
(awareness) to monitor performance
3. Take action (to make a change)
4. Have sufficient flexibility (vary
your behavior until you get desired result)
To simplify, NLP
is about thinking, observing, doing and
adapting to get what you want out of life.
Q. Why do I fail in achieving my goals?
A. Some of the causes are external, while others are internal. One very common
internal cause of failure is having an opposing or contradictory set of values.
This is the number one performance barrier. For example "you want to be rich but
do not want to work hard" or "you want to enjoy sex but do not want to be seen
as a slut." or "You want a better boy/girl friend but you don't think you are
good enough" or "you don't want to be lonely, however, you cannot tolerate other
people’s differences or mistakes.” Your conflicting set of values hinders your
performance. In this workshop we will uncover some of your limiting values and
see how they affect your behavior in various life situations.
Q. What do you think of the popular self-development tools?
A. There are several useful personality development tools such as
Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), EFT, mind mapping, hypnosis and
meditation; however, unfortunately, their uses are often exaggerated due to
ignorance or marketing purposes. I will explain some of these tools during the
workshop and tell you what they can do, what they cannot do and how to best use
Q. What is "Motivation Calculus" theory?
In the 1970s Charles Handy's formulated Motivation Calculus extension of
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Motivation Calculus consist of 3 parameters:
Needs - Maslow factors, personality characteristics and environmental forces
Results - Motivation is a measure of how
much additional effort will produce an additional result (ROI)
Effectiveness - Do achieved results meet our
Q. What are motivation and hygiene factors?
A. In 1966, Frederick Herzberg
published Work and the Nature of Man in which he showed that certain
factors truly motivate ('motivators'), whereas others tended to lead to
dissatisfaction ('hygiene factors'). According to his theory, man has two sets
of needs; one as an animal to avoid pain, and two as a human being to grow
psychologically. Management and professionals need to understand evaluate both
sets of needs to improve the individual performance.
Example 'hygiene' needs (or maintenance
factors): salary, title (status), security and relationships
Examples of motivators include: achievement, recognition, advancement and
Q. What are the various personality types? How I can use them?
A. There are several behavioral styles’ theories and personality assessment
systems. They can be used for self-awareness, self-development, management
training, and recruitment.
Egyptian Four Temperaments/Personalities
(fire, water, earth and air)
Greek's Hippocrates Four
Temperaments/Personalities (cheerful, somber, enthusiastic and calm)
Carl Jung's Psychological Types
Myers Briggs personality types theory (MBTI
David Keirsey's personality types theory
(Temperament Sorter model)
Hans Eysenck's personality types theory
Katherine Benziger's Brain Type theory
William Moulton Marston's DISC personality
theory (Inscape, Thomas Int., etc)
Belbin Team Roles and personality types theory
The 'Big Five' factors personality model
Firo-B personality assessment model
Other personality theories and psychometrics
Q. What are the 8 Personality Archetypes?
A. In the 19th century, Carl Jung created eight main 'psychological archetypes'
structure to use as a psychoanalysis tool to describe various personalities and
their attitudes. Even today, these types provide the basis of many of the
leading psychometrics systems used today, including Myers Briggs and Keirsey.
1. Extraverted Thinking (analytical,
strategic, plans, implements, organizes others)
Thinking (contemplative, discovering, theoretical, seeks self-knowledge)
3. Extraverted Feeling (sociable,
sentimental, seeks personal and social success)
4. Introverted Feeling
(inaccessible, enigmatic, self-contained, seeks inner intensity)
5. Extraverted Sensation (practical,
hands-on, pleasure-seeking, hard-headed)
6. Introverted Sensation (intense, obsessive, detached, connoisseur,
7. Extraverted Intuition
(adventurous, innovative, seeks novelty, proposes change)
8. Introverted Intuition (idealistic, visionary, esoteric, mystical,
Which type describes you best? This is a good exercise in self-awareness and
behavior assessment in various environments and situations.
Q. What are the different types of cultures?
A. In 1978 Charles Handy wrote, "Gods Of Management" using a metaphor of the
Greek Gods to explain different organizational cultures.
Zeus (power and patriarchy - 'the
Apollo (order and bureaucracy, - the
Athena (expertise and meritocracy -
the task culture)
Dionysus (individualism and
uniqueness - the "existentialist" culture)
Although these classifications were made to describe the organizational culture,
they are applicable to social and family cultures as well. These classifications
can help you to determine the influence they have on individual personalities.
What is KASAC?
KASAC is an acronym for Knowledge, Analysis, Synthesis,
Application and Communication. It is an education methodology
and evaluation model designed by International Institute of Management for
leadership development. However, it can be applied to other learning and
developmental domains. The model emphasizes critical thinking and applied
education versus traditional academic models with a focus on memorization of
theories for quiz-based assessments.
Q. What is "Equity Theory"?
A. In 1963, John Stacey Adams, a
workplace and behavioral psychologist, published his Equity Theory on job
motivation. In his theory he acknowledged the subtle and variable factors that
affect each individual's assessment of their relationship with their job and
their employer. People seek a fair balance between what they put into their job
(input) and what they get out of it (output). Our concept of a fair balance is
highly influenced by our colleagues, friends and partners. They have a key role
in establishing "fairness" benchmarks for output and input.
Inputs are typically: effort,
commitment, tolerance, enthusiasm, trust, support and personal sacrifice,
Outputs are typically: financial
rewards, respect, recognition, praise, development, etc.
Although Equity Theory was developed for the workplace, it very much
applies to our personal relationships. The success and the length of any
relationship (work or personal) is a function of how the two parties in the
relationship think about Equity. Do you feel you have Equity in your
relationship? Are your fairness reference points or benchmarks valid for your
personal situation? If you are unhappy in your current relationship or if you
have been moving from one relationship to another with no success or
improvement, maybe its time for you to re-evaluate your benchmarks
Q. What is Mehrabian's communications model?
A. In the 1960s, Professor Albert Mehrabian pioneered the understanding of
communications. He established the following statistical model for the
effectiveness of spoken communications:
7% of meaning is in the words that
38% of meaning is paralinguistic (the
way that the words are said)
55% of meaning is in facial
Considering the context of the communication, style, expression, tone, facial
expression and body language, Mehrabian's communications model is particularly
useful in identifying mental issues, deception and communicating more
effectively. Beware, this is not a general rule that you can transfer to any
given situation. Communication is an essential skill to help you build
relationships, meet your needs and succeed in life. Communication is an integral
part of coaching programs.
Q. What is Bloom’s Taxonomy
Taxonomy is a Greek word
meaningclassification. In 1956, Benjamin Bloom, an educational
psychologist, published, Taxonomy (Classification) of Learning Domains -
Cognitive (Mental), Affective (Emotional), Psychomotor (Physical) Domains.
Bloom’s Taxonomy was created originally for the academic field, but since his
Taxonomy is relevant to learning and development, most corporate trainers and HR
professionals, coaches and teachers can benefit substantially from understanding
it. Unfortunately, like most academicians and researchers, Bloom focused more on
theory than application and used an academic language that made it difficult to
understand apply. To simplify the concept Bloom’s Taxonomy is divided into three
Cognitive domain (thinking and
Affective domain (emotions and
Psychomotor domain (manual and
This has given rise to other variations such as Skills-Knowledge-Attitude (KAS),
Do-Think-Feel (DTF), etc.
Q. What is FSNP?
A. In 1965, Bruce Tuckman analyzed the team-development model and found that
teams go through four stages; Forming Storming, Norming, Performing and
Adjourning. Understanding this process allows you to better manage the process
of developing and ending relationships between teams whether they consist of two
or two hundred members.
Q. What is Cybernetics?
In 1948 Norbert Wiener wrote, ''Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the
Animal and the Machine." Wiener outlined the first law of cybernetics that
states, "The unit within the system with the most behavioral responses available
to it, controls the system." This is also known as 'the law of requisite
variety', which is central to the concepts of Neuro-Linguistic Programming
(NLP). Various subsequent publications came up with different interpretations
and translations. My own understanding and translation to the social domain is
that "The unit (person) within the system (society) with the most behavioral
responses available to it (choices) controls the system." The best way to have
more choices is to educate oneself of available resources and ways to acquire
them. Simply put, power comes from knowledge or as it is commonly known,
"knowledge is power”
. If you were wondering why a certain person succeeded
more than you did, there is something he/she knows that you don't.
About the Author
Mr. Med Jones is the president of International Institute of
Management, an advanced management research and leadership education
Institute based in Las Vegas, Nevada. The Institute development network
includes 55 universities and research partners in 40 countries. One
of the Institute's main research practices covers personal and
organization development science with a focus on leadership
transformation, change management, success and life-fulfillment. For
more information about the Institute please visit
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